The desire for more accurate research of electroporation also requires new directions in development of electronic devices. The EP1 electroporator, which we developed in 1998, generates monopolar pulses with amplitudes up to 600V, while APEX, developed in 1999, generates bipolar pulses up to 600 Vpp. In 2001 we also developed a device (GMS7.1) that allows for simultaneous connection of up to seven electrodes. From 2000 to 2003 we participated in the development of a clinical electroporator (CliniporatorTM) within the EU project QLK3-1999-00484. Currently we are working on a device that will generate arbitrary signals up to 2000 Vpp. As an upgrade of CliniporatorTM, we are also developing an ECG synchronizer, which will minimize the risk of heart defibrillation.
Fundamental understanding of electroporation can be gained from experiments on lipid bilayers, the simplest model of the membrane. For this we developed a system that delivers arbitrary signals up to 1.5 V and measures currents as low as several nA.